Asgarpanah, J. and N. Kazemivash. 2013. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Carthamus tinctorius L. Chin J Integr
Med. 19, 2: 153-159.
Abstract: Carthamus tinctorius L. is commonly known as Safflower. C. tinctorius
extracts and oil are important in drug development with numerous pharmacological
activities in the world. This plant is cultivated mainly for its seed, which is
used as edible oil. For a long time C. tinctorius has been used in traditional
medicines as a purgative, analgesic, antipyretic and an antidote to poisoning.
It is a useful plant in painful menstrual problems, post-partum hemorrhage and
osteoporosis. C. tinctorius has recently been shown to have antioxidant,
analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Carthamin, safflower
yellow are the main constituents in the flower of C. tinctorius. Carthamidin,
isocarthamidin, hydroxysafflor yellow A, safflor yellow A, safflamin C and
luteolin are the main constituents which are reported from this plant.
Caryophyllene, p-allyltoluene, 1-acetoxytetralin and heneicosane were identified
as the major components for C. tinctorius flowers essential oil. Due to the easy
collection of the plant and being widespread and also remarkable biological
activities, this plant has become both food and medicine in many parts of the
world. This review presents comprehensive analyzed information on the botanical,
chemical and pharmacological aspects of C. tinctorius.
L. Louw. 2012. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and high oleic acid safflower oil in the treatment of children with
HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis: a randomized, double-blinded and crossover
preliminary study. Lipids
Health Dis. [Epub ahead of print].
BACKGROUND: Surgery is the mainstay therapy for HPV-induced laryngeal
papillomatosis (LP) and adjuvant therapies are palliative at best. Research
revealed that conjugated-linoleic acid (CLA) may improve the outcome of
virally-induced diseases. The effects of ClarinolTM G-80 (CLA) and high oleic
safflower oil (HOSF) on children with LP
(concomitant with surgery) were evaluated.
DESIGN: A randomized, double-blinded, crossover and reference-oil controlled trial
was conducted at a South African medical university. Study components included
clinical, HPV type/load and lymphocyte/cytokine analyses, according to routine
laboratory methods. Participants Overall: ten children enrolled; eight completed
the trial; five remained randomized; seven received CLA first; all treatments
remained double-blinded. Intervention Children (4 to 12 years) received 2.5 ml
p/d CLA (8 weeks) and 2.5 ml p/d HOSF (8 weeks) with a washout period (6 weeks)
in-between. The one-year trial included a post-treatment period (30 weeks) and
afterwards was a one-year follow-up period. Main outcome measures Changes in
numbers of surgical procedures for improved disease outcome, total/anatomical
scores (staging system) for papillomatosis prevention/viral inhibition, and
lymphocyte/cytokine counts for immune responses between baselines and each
treatment/end of trial were measured.
FINDINGS: After each treatment all the children were in remission (no surgical
procedures); after the trial two had recurrence (surgical procedures in
post-treatment period); after the follow-up period three had recurrence (several
surgical procedures) and five recovered (four had no surgical procedures).
Effects of CLA (and HOSF to a lesser extent) were restricted to
mildly/moderately aggressive papillomatosis. Children with low total scores
(seven/less) and reduced infections (three/less laryngeal sub-sites) recovered
after the trial. No harmful effects were observed. The number of surgical
procedures during the trial (n6/available records) was significantly lower [(p
0.03) (95 % CI 1.1; 0)]. Changes in scores between baselines and CLA treatments
(n8) were significantly lower: total scores [(p 0.02) (95 % CI 30.00; 0.00)];
anatomical scores [(p 0.008) (95 % CI 33.00: -2.00)]. Immune enhancement could
not be demonstrated.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary case and group findings pave the way for further research
on the therapeutic potential of adjuvant CLA in the treatment of HPV-induced
Milte, C. M., N. Sinn, J. D. Buckley, A. M. Coates, R. M. Young and P. R. Howe. 2012. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, cognition, and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrition. 28, 6: 670-677.
To determine the effects of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich oil and a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil versus an ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich safflower oil (control) on literacy and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a randomized controlled trial.
Supplements rich in EPA, DHA, or safflower oil were randomly allocated for 4 mo to 90 Australian children 7 to 12 y old with ADHD symptoms higher than the 90th percentile on the Conners Rating Scales. The effect of supplementation on cognition, literacy, and parent-rated behavior was assessed by linear mixed modeling. Pearson correlations determined associations between the changes in outcome measurements and the erythrocyte fatty acid content (percentage of total) from baseline to 4 mo.
There were no significant differences between the supplement groups in the primary outcomes after 4 mo. However, the erythrocyte fatty acid profiles indicated that an increased proportion of DHA was associated with improved word reading (r = 0.394) and lower parent ratings of oppositional behavior (r = 0.392). These effects were more evident in a subgroup of 17 children with learning difficulties: an increased erythrocyte DHA was associated with improved word reading (r = 0.683), improved spelling (r = 0.556), an improved ability to divide attention (r = 0.676), and lower parent ratings of oppositional behavior (r = 0.777), hyperactivity (r = 0.702), restlessness (r = 0.705), and overall ADHD symptoms (r = 0.665).
Increases in erythrocyte ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically DHA, may improve literacy and behavior in children with ADHD. The greatest benefit may be observed in children who have comorbid learning difficulties.
Asp, M. L., A. L. Collene, L. E. Norris, R. M. Cole, M. B. Stout, S. Y. Tang, J. C. Hsu and M. A. Belury. 2011. Time-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Clin Nutr. 30, 4: 443-449.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic effects of dietary fat quality in people with type 2 diabetes are not well-understood. The study objective was to evaluate effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower (SAF) oils on glycemia, blood lipids, and inflammation. The hypothesis we tested is that dietary oils improve glycemia, lipids, and inflammatory markers in a time-dependent way that follows accumulation of linoleic acid and CLA isomers in serum of subjects supplemented with dietary oils.
METHODS: Fifty-five post-menopausal, obese women with type 2 diabetes enrolled, and 35 completed this randomized, double-masked crossover study. Treatments were 8 g daily of CLA and SAF for 16 weeks each. We used a multiple testing procedure with pre-determined steps analysis to determine the earliest time that a significant effect was detected.
RESULTS: CLA did not alter measured metabolic parameters. SAF decreased HbA1c (-0.64 ± 0.18%, p = 0.0007) and C-reactive protein (-13.6 ± 8.2 mg/L, p = 0.0472), increased QUICKI (0.0077 ± 0.0035, p = 0.0146) with a minimum time to effect observed 16 weeks after treatment. SAF increased HDL cholesterol (0.12 ± 0.05 mmol/L, p = 0.0228) with the minimum time to detect an effect of SAF at 12 weeks. The minimum time to detect an increase of c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA, and linoleic acid in serum of women supplemented CLA or SAF, respectively, was four weeks.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 8 g of SAF daily improved glycemia, inflammation, and blood lipids, indicating that small changes in dietary fat quality may augment diabetes treatments to improve risk factors for diabetes-related complications.
Suzuki, K., S. Tsubaki, M. Fujita, N. Koyama, M. Takahashi and K. Takazawa. 2010. Effects of safflower seed extract on arterial stiffness. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 6: 1007-1014.
Abstract: Safflower seed extract (SSE) contains characteristic polyphenols and serotonin derivatives (N-( p-coumaroyl) serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin), which are reported to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), formation of atherosclerotic plaques, and improve arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave analysis in animal models. The effects of long-term supplementation with SSE on arterial stiffness in human subjects were evaluated. This doubleblind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 77 males (35-65 years) and 15 postmenopausal females (55-65 years) with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension who were not undergoing treatment. Subjects received SSE (70 mg/day as serotonin derivatives) or placebo for 12 weeks, and pulse wave measurements, ie, second derivative of photoplethysmogram (SDPTG), augmentation index, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were conducted at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Vascular age estimated by SDPTG aging index improved in the SSE-supplemented group when compared with the placebo group at four (P = 0.0368) and 12 weeks (P = 0.0927). The trend of augmentation index reduction (P = 0.072 versus baseline) was observed in the SSE-supplemented group, but reduction of baPWV by SSE supplementation was not observed. The SSE-supplemented group also showed a trend towards a lower malondialdehyde-modified-LDL autoantibody titer at 12 weeks from baseline. These results suggest long-term ingestion of SSE in humans could help to improve arterial stiffness.
Park, J. M., S. U. Park, W. S. Jung and S. K. Moon. 2011. Carthami-Semen acupuncture point injection for chronic daily headache: A pilot, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 19S1: S19-S25.
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to examine the possibility of Carthami-Semen (CS, Safflower seed) acupuncture point injection as a new promising treatment for chronic daily headache (CDH).
METHODS: A total of 40 subjects with CDH were recruited and randomised to a CS acupuncture point injection group or a normal saline (NS) acupuncture point injection group. Acupuncture point injections were applied twice a week during 4 weeks to the bilateral Fengchi (GB20), Jianjing (GB21) and Taiyang (EX-HN5) acupoints with CS extract or NS.
OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was headache-related quality of life (QoL), assessed using the Headache Impact Test (HIT). Secondary outcome measures were the changes in the number of headache-free days and health status as assessed with the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36).
RESULTS: HIT scores decreased by 14.9 points in the CS acupuncture point injection group compared with 7.9 points in the NS acupuncture point injection group (p=0.013). Headache-free days increased by 32.6% in the CS acupuncture point injection group compared with 17.4% in the NS acupuncture point injection group (p=0.045). There were significant increases in SF-36 scores compared with baseline in both groups, but the mean improvement was greater in the CS acupuncture point injection group. No serious adverse events (AEs) were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the CS acupuncture point injection could be a new safe and promising treatment for CDH. A larger and long-term follow-up trial is needed to determine more definitely the efficacy of CS acupuncture point injection and to elucidate how long the effect lasts.
Noreen, E.E., M. J. Sass, M. L. Crowe, V. A. Pabon, J. Brandauer and L. K. Averill. 2010. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 7: 31.
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults.
METHODS: A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's .
RESULTS: Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased lean mass and decreased fat mass. These changes were significantly correlated with a reduction in salivary cortisol following FO treatment.
Yuan, Q., V. R. Ramprasath, S. V. Harding, T. C. Rideout, Y. M. Chan and P. J. Jones. 2010. Diacylglycerol oil reduces body fat but does not alter energy or lipid metabolism in overweight, hypertriglyceridemic women. J Nutr. 140, 6: 1122-1126.
ABSTRACT: Diacylglycerol (DAG) may undergo differential metabolism compared with triacylglycerol (TAG) in humans, possibly resulting in decreased serum TAG concentration and TAG synthesis and increased energy expenditure (EE), thus reducing fat accumulation. Our objective was to examine the efficacy of DAG oil (Enova oil) consumption on serum lipid profiles, hepatic lipogenesis, EE, and body weight and composition compared with a control oil-blend composed of sunflower, safflower, and rapeseed oils at a 1:1:1 ratio. Twenty-six overweight (78.3 +/- 3.6 kg body weight and BMI 30.0 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)) mildly hypertriglyceridemic (1.81 +/- 0.66 mmol/L) women underwent 2 treatment phases of 28 d separated by a 4-wk washout period using a randomized crossover design. They consumed 40 g/d of either DAG or control oil during treatment phases. The baseline, EE, fat oxidation, body composition, and lipid profiles did not differ between the DAG and control oil intervention periods. Relative to control oil, DAG oil did not alter endpoint postprandial EE, fat oxidation, serum lipid profiles, or hepatic lipogenesis. However, DAG oil consumption reduced (P < 0.05) accumulation of body fat within trunk, android, and gynoid regions at the endpoint compared with control oil, although neither DAG nor control oil altered any of these variables during the 4-wk intervention period compared with their respective baseline levels. We conclude that although DAG oil is not effective in lowing serum lipids over a 4-wk intervention, it may be useful for reducing adiposity.
Norris, L. E., A. L. Collene, M. L. Asp, J. C. Hsu, L. -F. Liu, J. R. Richardson, D. Li, D. Bell, K. Osei, R. D. Jackson and M. A. Belury. 2009. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 90: 468-476.
Background: Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood.
Objective: We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.
Design: This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables.
Results: Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention.
Conclusions: Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both.
Yang, Z., J. Yang, Y. Jia, Y. Tian and A.Wen. 2009. Pharmacokinetic properties of hydroxysafflor yellow A in healthy Chinese female volunteers. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124: 635–638.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) was isolated from the dried flower of Carthamus tinctorius L. which was extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diseases due to blood stasis. However, there have been few detailed pharmacokinetic studies about HSYA on human beings.
Aim of the study: The aimwas to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of HSYA in healthy Chinese female volunteers.
Materials and methods: The volunteers were given intravenous infusion of single doses of safflor yellow injection (containing HSYA 35, 70 and 140 mg) in separate trial periods with 1 week wash out period. The concentration levels of HSYA in plasma were determined with HPLC. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from the plasma concentration versus time data using non-compartmental methods.
Results: The Cmax values were 2.02 ± 0.18, 7.47 ± 0.67 and 14.48 ± 4.71 g/mL after the administration of single doses of 35, 70, and 140 mg of HSYA, respectively. The corresponding values of AUC0–15h were 6.57 ± 1.20, 25.90 ± 4.62 and 48.47 ± 12.11g/(mL h−1), and the values of t1/2 were 3.21 ± 1.26, 3.33 ± 0.68 and 2.98 ± 0.09 h. The Student–Newman–Keuls test results showed that Cmax and AUC0–15h were both linearly related to dose.
Conclusions: In this study, the pharmacokinetic properties of HSYA are based on first-order kinetics over the dose range tested.